You have learned the numerical part of interval names, but that is only half of the battle. Now we will focus on the other half of the name, such as perfect, augmented, diminished or minor.
The following shows intervals with their complete names based on the keynote C. Some of these are perfect while others are major. You may wonder why some of these internals are perfect while other intervals are major. To be blunt, don't ask. The origins for these names is buried in the history of how music developed. In any case, the reason for the names is irrelevant, but you should recognize these terms because they will occur frequently in your study of music.
Intervals can be changed by increasing or decreasing its size by a half step. For example, the below 5th can be increased or decreased. And there are two manners of increasing or decreasing.
The below gif shows how to decrease or diminish the interval in two manners.
The below gif shows how to increase or augment the interval in two manners.
Here is a little more music jargon that you should now.
1) Perfect and major intervals are augmented when they are increased by a half step.
2) Perfect intervals are diminished when they are decreased by a half step.
3) Major intervals become minor when they are decreased by a half step.
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